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Title Publication Date/Location
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use by Military Personnel BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 May;14:143

Knapik JJ, Steelman RA, Hoedebecke SS, Farina EK, Austin KG and Lieberman HR

Although a number of studies have been conducted on the prevalence of dietary supplement use in military personnel, these investigations have not been previously summarized. This article provides a systematic literature review of this topic.

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Association Between Dietary Supplement Use and ICD-9-CM Code Classification in Active Duty US Navy and Marine Corps Service Members Military Medicine 2019 Apr; pii: usz053

Humphreys MA, Phillips CJ, Trone DW

This study is the first to our knowledge to examine associations of survey-reported dietary supplement use with medical record diagnoses, rather than retrospective self-reported supplement use at the time of the medical encounter or case reports of adverse events. Dietary supplement use and adverse events associations in US Navy and Marine Corps personnel remains unknown. This study assessed associations of Dietary supplement use in active duty personnel with ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes from outpatient medical encounters from the Military Health System Data Repository.

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Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Nutrients 2016 Oct; 8(10): 620

Knapik JJ, Trone DW, McGraw S, Steelman RA, Austin KG, Lieberman HR

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of caffeine use by Navy and Marine Corps personnel was similar to that reported from NHANES data, although total consumption of caffeine (mg/day) was higher in Navy and Marine Corps personnel. Characteristics associated with caffeine use in these service members were similar to civilian investigations. Future research should focus on the caffeine use of Air Force personnel which have not been investigated to date and reasons for use of caffeine-containing products.

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Demographic, Lifestyle Factors, and Reasons for Use of Dietary Supplements by Air Force Personnel Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance 2016 Jul;87(7):628-37

Austin KG, Price LL, McGraw SM, Leahy G, Lieberman HR

Dietary supplement use is common among U.S. Army personnel to purportedly improve health, provide energy, and increase strength. However, a comprehensive analysis of Dietary supplement use among U.S. Air Force personnel has not been conducted using the same survey instrument, which would permit direct comparisons to Dietary supplement use by Army personnel.

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Prevalence, Adverse Events, and Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement and Nutritional Supplement Use by US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2016 Sep;116(9):1423-1442

Knapik JJ, Trone DW, Austin KG, Steelman RA, Farina EK, Lieberman HR

About 50% of Americans and 60% to 70% of US military personnel use dietary supplements, some of which have been associated with adverse events. Nutritional supplements like sport drinks and sport bars/gels are also commonly used by athletes and service members. Previous dietary supplement and nutritional supplement surveys were conducted on Army, Air Force, and Coast Guard personnel.

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Use of Dietary Supplements Among Active-Duty US Army Soldiers American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Oct;92(4):985-95

Lieberman HR, Stavinoha TB, McGraw TB, White A, Hadden LS, and Marriott BP

US Army soldiers engage in strenuous activities and must maintain fitness and body weight to retain their jobs. Anecdotal reports suggest that the use of dietary supplements by soldiers may reflect their unique occupational requirements and the complexity of their job and family responsibilities.

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